Prepared by the Capacity Building Assistance and HIV Project, Great Plains Tribal Chairmen’s Health Board
Sexually-transmitted diseases/infections (STDs) are a problem central to the mandate of public health within the United States, and their impact is profoundly felt among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. In 2010, increased STD rates and outbreaks in North Dakota and South Dakota refocused attention back to Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and later Syphilis, raising the possibility that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may follow, as the modes of transmission are the same. Motivated by this potential, the Capacity Building Assistance (CBA) and HIV Project at the Great Plains Tribal Chairmen’s Health Board (GPTCHB) received special funding to compile this resource guide.
Ultimately, we hope that this guide will serve three interrelated objectives:
- To enhance the capacity of our partner Tribes to respond conduct HIV prevention and education and to respond to an outbreak of HIV should one emerge;
- To support the first goal by illuminating resources at the state level in North Dakota and South Dakota available to Tribal members such that our partner Tribes in those states may be able to take advantage of them;
- To connect state health professionals with those at the Tribal level, thereby enhancing communication and dialogue between these two groups – the most natural of partners in health;
If this resource guide is successful in accomplishing these objectives, we will have moved closer to accomplishing the overall goal of reducing the impact of HIV and AIDS on our partner Tribes.
The PDF of the guide is available here. Note that this electronic version of the guide is heavily abridged, and makes frequent reference to the complete guide.
A wide variety of HIV/AIDS-related programming and resources are available within North Dakota and South Dakota, overseen by each state’s respective HIV Program. For general HIV-related questions, contact Lindsey VanderBusch (ND) and April Ivey (SD). For more particular questions – including those regarding prevention, Ryan White programming, and outreach – see Pages 9 and 10 (here) of the guide for the full list of North Dakota and South Dakota state partners.
Lindsey VanderBusch, ND HIV/STD Program Director
- Phone: 701-328-4555
- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Contact for:
- General information regarding HIV in North Dakota and available programming and other opportunities therein
- Availability of state resources for programming and outbreak response
Susan Gannon, SD HIV Prevention and Surveillance Program Manager
- Phone: 605-773-5952
- Email: email@example.com
- Contact for:
- General questions regarding HIV and related programming in South Dakota
- Questions regarding HIV prevention materials or participation in SD HIV Prevention Planning Group meetings
In addition to their central programming, North Dakota’s Field Epidemiologists and South Dakota’s DIS Officers serve as the primary relationship builders within ND and SD communities. Further, they can provide logistical support, education, testing, and information regarding and access to HIV treatment. Often, they serve as the first point of contact for new HIV cases. See Pages 10 and 11 (here) of the guide for contact information.
The best way to prevent HIV is educate the public about the disease (including transmission, risk factors and prevention methods). Both North Dakota and South Dakota have many resources available for HIV prevention, with specifics for each listed below.
Educational Materials and training
Additional education and training materials, resources and opportunities available at the national and state levels that can Tribes can take advantage of are listed below.
The AIDS Education and Training Center (AETC) offers a wide array of free resources, webinars and training on their website: http://aidsetc.org/resources.
Websites that provide free educational materials and printable handouts:
- CDC’s Act Against AIDS includes free and printable posters, banners, and brochures
- AIDS InfoNet contains numerous free fact sheets with information on HIV-related topics
- Greaterthan.org offers educational materials and state-specific information and advocacy
- Kaiser – HIV/AIDS includes a compilation of HIV-related materials, including its global impact
- The National Native American AIDS Prevention Center provides resources, data, and other information specific to HIV among American Indian populations
HIV/AIDS prevention materials and condoms can be ordered from the North Dakota Department of Health through a form which can be obtained by following this link. The North Dakota Department of Health also expressed interest in partnering with Tribes to produce culturally-sensitive prevention materials and conduct outreach to promote testing events. Contact Lindsey VanderBusch at 701-328-4555 for more information.
The South Dakota Department of Health occasionally offers trainings at the state-level, many of which are pre-recorded and regularly available. Those interested should contact Susan Gannon at 605-773-4785 or visit http://www.effectiveinterventions.org.
South Dakota also has an HIV Prevention Planning Group (PPG), which makes decisions about HIV prevention in the state. The PPG’s meetings are open to the public and offer time for public comments. Contact April Ivey at 605-773-4785 for more information.
Producing Tribal-Specific Materials
The production of Tribal- or Native-specific materials is often extremely helpful in the effort to promote prevention at the Tribal level. After gathering and reviewing a diverse body of materials, the authors of this guide reviewed these materials and developed language that Tribes may consider using in their own educational materials. This language can be found on Pages 21 and 22 (here) of the guide.
Since the late 1980s, the Great Plains Area Indian Health Service recognized the possibility of HIV transmission during the Sundance ceremonies that occur annually on many of the reservations. With this possibility in mind, it is recommended that education about HIV be provided to Sundance leaders and dancers and that precautions be taken to ensure their safety while respecting the sacredness of these ceremonies. These precautions are listed on Page 25 of the guide (here) along with additional information.
The Indian Health Service had formerly provided supplies for Sundance safety. From 2010 to 2014, CBA/HIV Project took over this service. The grant funding this Project has been completed and these supplies are no longer available. Potential sources of funding and supplies are listed on Page 25 and 26 of the guide (here).
HIV Counseling, Testing, and/or Referral Sites
Getting tested, understanding risk factors, receiving comprehensive counseling and referral to services are crucial steps between the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. Several sites in North Dakota and South Dakota, listed on Pages 27 to 33 (here) of the guide, partner with their respective states to provide some, or all, of these services.
AIDS.gov also offers a very convenient way to locate testing sites and other HIV services near you. Simply go to the HIV Testing Sites and Care Services Locator on their website and enter your location.
HIV treatment is a life long, complicated process that often bears an extremely high economic burden. The resources listed on Pages 34 to 38 (here) provide crucial information for HIV positive patients.
After a new case of HIV is reported to the state, their response follows a standardized process that ensures that the needs of each patient and their partner(s) are met quickly and completely:
- A DIS Officer (SD) or Field Epidemiologist (ND) is dispatched to contact the individual and collect contact information and to provide them with materials regarding next steps.
- Case workers generally assist with partner notification and other available options.
- Individuals are referred to local Ryan White case manager who will be able to submit an application for Ryan White services and assist the individual with establishing a plan to cover their HIV treatment and other ongoing care.
- If an individual is deemed eligible for Ryan White services (described in detail on Page 33 of the guide), the program assists with transportation, care, counseling, case management, and referral.
Ryan White Care Act, Part B – Case Management
Part B of the Ryan White Care Act provides low-income residents of North Dakota and South Dakota who are HIV positive with access to support and services to assist with managing their disease. Eligibility is limited to those who: maintains residence within their respective state, lives below 300% of the Federal Poverty Level, and is HIV positive.
Ryan White Care Act will cover any remaining expenses after the application of IHS, Medicaid, or other insurance benefits. Applicants to the program are encouraged to investigate other insurance and payment options.
For more information about the Ryan White Care Act/ND CARES program in North Dakota or for assistance in contacting a Ryan White case manager near you, contact Gordana Cokrlic at 701-328-2379 or via email at firstname.lastname@example.org. Case management sites are listed on Pages 34 to 36 (here) of the guide.
For more information about the Ryan White Care Act in South Dakota, contact Christine Olson at 605-773-3523 or via email at email@example.com. Information and an application can also be obtained at https://doh.sd.gov/diseases/infectious/ryanwhite/. Case management sites are listed on Pages 34 to 36 (here) of the guide.
Advocacy and Policy
The Indian Health Service’s HIV/AIDS Program, in partnership with the Office of Minority Health Resource Center and the Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board, created a Tribal HIV/STD Advocacy Kit & Policy Guide for Tribal leaders and others interested in pursuing HIV-related advocacy and policy change. A PDF of the kit is available here.
Many thanks for the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe CHR program for sharing this guide with us.
We hope you find this guide useful, and please feel free to contact PJ Beaudry at firstname.lastname@example.org if you have any recommendations for additional materials or information to include.
This resource guide was produced by the Capacity Building Assistance to Improve the Delivery and Effectiveness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Services for High Risk and or Racial Minority Populations Project, supported by CDC Cooperative Agreement Number 1U65PS001694-04. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the CDC.